The Congressional Research Service (CRS) released a report entitled “Carbon Capture: A Technology Assessment.” The 100 page report was completed by Pete Folger, a Specialist in Energy and Natural Resources Policy for CRS. The report focuses on the first component of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), the capture portion of the technology. The report “assesses prospects for improved, lower-cost technologies for each of the three current approaches to CO₂ capture: post-combustion capture; pre-combustion capture; and oxy-combustion capture.” The report indicates all three technologies have success with a capture rate above 90 percent, but the drawback remains the expensive price tag. The issue also remains that the technologies have yet to be demonstrated on a full-scale coal-fired or gas-fired power plant. Current R&D efforts are being focused on how to reduce the cost of the technology. Government and private-sector roadmaps predict that capture technologies will be ready for widespread commercial availability by 2020.